A Journey Through Technology

Philosophy of Adaptation

Education is constantly changing. Throughout the years I have spent in education, both as a student and as a teacher, change has been a constant theme. In order to make it through the changes that we encounter, we must be able to adapt and readjust our course so we don’t lose our way through our educational journey. Whether you are a teacher, a student, or a leader, there needs to be a focus on how to best adapt and overcome change. My vision statement for change is “Seek change with a purpose.” Without change we can never hope to improve upon our current methods, but make those changes with a purpose in mind. One of my favorite parts about teaching is reflecting on what worked and what didn’t in my classroom, so I can improve my teaching for the next unit, semester, or even year. By reflecting on myself as a teacher, I open the door to change. “…[C]reative ideas and novel solutions are often generated when the status quo is disrupted.” (Fullan, 2001, p.107) When I disrupt the status quo in my classroom, I am seeking change with a purpose, so that my students get the most out of their time with me.

My plan of adaptation centers around two ideas: helping students adapt to change and helping teachers adapt to change. The first, helping students adapt, occurs in my classroom. In order for students to be able to adapt to change, they need to be exposed to it. “Too often school is a place where creativity is systematically killed, individuality is stamped out, and boredom reigns supreme.” (Burgess, 2012, Kindle Location 797) My classroom needs to be a change for students, different from what they are normally exposed to in school. One way I want to change my classroom to help my students adapt to change is by incorporating knowledge sharing. According to Majid, & Chitra (2013), integrating collaborative learning opportunities in the classroom “could make learning more interactive and engaging.” Knowledge sharing is one of the five components of leadership that Fullan discusses in his book Leading in a Culture of Change (2001), and I think that as leaders we not only need to embody these traits, but also need to instill these traits in those we lead. I am not only a leader for other teachers, but also for the students I interact with on a daily basis.

My plan for helping other teachers adapt to change in my school and my district is to act as an informal leader. “Informal teacher leaders…emerge spontaneously and organically from the teacher ranks.” (Danielson, 2007) As far as I know, there are not any official teacher leader positions in my district, so I think my best choice would be to take an informal role as a leader, starting with other teachers in my school. I want to take things I have learned throughout my degree program and show other teachers how they, and in turn their students, can benefit from current research and new methods. “Research shows that when teachers are empowered to function as autonomous professionals and leaders, this builds a sense of professional confidence and pride that feeds effective teaching practice.” (Berry, Daughtrey, & Wieder, 2010)

Based on my experience this semester, I think that a good starting place as an informal leader would be to act as a mentor to other teachers at my school. “A teacher has greater knowledge than a student; a mentor has greater perspective.” (Cohen, 2012) The past few years I have been taking these classes, I feel that I have been given a “greater perspective”, and now it is my responsibility to share that perspective with my colleagues.

In my vision of seeking change with a purpose, I hope that I can encourage more leadership from other teachers at my school and in my district. “Teacher leaders call others to action and energize them with the aim of improving teaching and learning.” (Danielson, 2007) As teachers, we should not rely solely on our administrators to lead us. “Leadership is the professional work of everyone in a school.” (Lambert, 2002)

References

Berry, B., Daughtrey, A., Wiedner, A. (2010) Teacher Leadership: Leading the Way to Effective Teaching and Learning. Center for Teaching Quality. Retrieved April 13, 2017 from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509719.pdf

Burgess, D. (2012). Teach Like a Pirate: Increase Student Engagement, Boost your Creativity, and Transform your Life as an Educator. Dave Burgess Consulting. Kindle Edition.

Cohen, P. (2012). The American Scholar: Teaching vs. Mentoring. Theamericanscholar.org. Retrieved 24 March 2017, from https://theamericanscholar.org/teaching-vs-mentoring/#

Danielson, C. (2007) The Many Faces of Leadership. Educational Leadership, 65(1), 14-19. Retrieved April 13, 2017 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept07/vol65/num01/The-Many-Faces-of-Leadership.aspx

Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.,U.S. Retrieved from http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2081/lib/uasoutheast/reader.action?ppg=17&docID=10842273&tm=1444680173430

Lambert, L. (2002) A Framework for Shared Leadership. Educational Leadership, 59(8), 37049. Retrieved March 27, 2017 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may02/vol59/num08/A-Framework-for-Shared-Leadership.aspx

Majid, S., Chitra, P.K. (2013). Role of Knowledge Sharing in the Learning Process. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, 2(1), 1292-1298. Retrieved April 5, 2017.

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Week 13 Reflection

This week was my week of planning about my philosophy of adaptation. I revisited my posts from throughout the semester, and realized how much we talked about this semester. This made my philosophy a bit harder to organize because there are so many things I want to include, but now I need to figure out the best way to include them. I am very encouraged this week, however, because I know that once I get my philosophy finished, I will have a better idea of what I want to focus on for this next school year. Planning for the next year is one of my favorite things about the end of the year, because it gives me a chance to reflect on the previous year and decide what changes should be made for next year. After this past year of graduate classes, now I have even more to reflect on and consider incorporating into next years classes.

This week, my main way impacting the learning of others was through the Twitter chat. My blog post this week was mainly a first attempt at organizing my thoughts for my philosophy, so I don’t know how much of an impact I really had. Gerald and Natalie both commented on my post, and those will help me as I write my final philosophy this next week.

I read and commented on Sara’s and Gerald’s posts this week. Sara’s post was her entire philosophy of adaptation, which I enjoyed reading. She is also a science teacher, so I tend to find commonalities with her, and this week was no different. One thing that I really liked about her philosophy was that she talked about the disconnect that students have between subjects. They don’t consider that subjects can overlap, so when there is math in science, they tend to say something. I find this happens often in chemistry. On the first day of school, I tell students that chemistry is at least 50% math, and there are always groans when they hear that. Sara’s post talked about how there should be a push to incorporate more classes together using PBL and included some information about a high school called High Tech High. This sounds very interesting to me and I am going to look into this more. It seems like a very different type of school, and maybe that is just what education needs in terms of changing for the better.

Gerald was a bit like me this week. He hadn’t started writing his philosophy, but he was working on organizing his thoughts and ideas in his post. He shared part of his vision statement, which is “Murphy’s Law”. This is so fitting for me because of my recent experience in trying to change my classroom and go paperless for a day. Of course, the Wi-Fi at my school did not want to play nice that day, so the day did not go according to plan. I will never forget that day of craziness, and I think I will always be prepared for “Murphy’s Law” to rear it’s ugly head at the most inopportune time.

I look forward to putting my philosophy together this week, and also getting a chance to read everyone else’s. This semester has flown by so fast, and now comes the fun part of bringing everything I’ve learned the past 13 weeks and organizing it into my philosophy of adaptation.

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Planning My Philosophy of Adaptation

As we wrap up this class, now I need to put everything that we’ve talked about and looked at this semester together. My final philosophy of adaptation will explain how I intend to adapt to change in the classroom, as both a teacher and a leader. This will include a vision statement, a description of how teachers and leaders adapt to change, and a description of how I can plan classroom instruction to assist students in adapting to change.

Right now, my vision statement is centered around making purposeful change. As teachers, we need to constantly be adjusting what we are doing to make sure we are meeting the needs of all of our students. This is very relevant to me right now because I am in the prep-for-next-year mode. I always get a new burst of energy right before school gets out when I examine what worked this year, and what things I need to focus on changing for next year. I always try to keep an open mind and reach out to my colleagues to get new ideas I can try out next year. I could even phrase my vision statement as more of a question: How can we change things for the better?

In terms of being a leader through change, I really need to spend time focusing on the five components of leadership explained by Michael Fullan in Leading in a Culture of Change (2001). I believe that I embody parts of each of the components, but if I can spend more time examining my strengths and weaknesses within each, I will be better prepared to help lead through change. In my post last week, I discussed being an informal teacher leader. At this point, I don’t see myself taking a formal role as a leader in my school, but I am going to be offering my help where it might be needed to show that change isn’t as scary or difficult to navigate as it first appears. Change is inevitable in education and sometimes it really comes down to “sink or swim” on whether or not anyone will make it through those changes. Change takes time, but it also takes the right people who are willing to give the proper time and commitment to the change in order to see success. We need to have the right people on our team to make it through change. Another thing I still need to clarify is how to determine if someone is the right person or not. Just because someone doesn’t agree with me, doesn’t mean they don’t belong on the team.

Helping students adapt to change is a weak area for me. I was never flexible as a student, and despised when things didn’t go according to plan. In science, this can be very difficult, because experiments rarely go as intended, especially the first time. In order for me to help students adapt to change, I need to be better at adapting to change as well. My plan of transitioning to a student-centered classroom could really help with this, because that is a method of learning that many students are not familiar with. Helping them adapt to a change in classroom dynamic could be the magic stepping stone to helping them adapt to change across the board.

Right now I feel like I’m a bit jumbled in how my Philosophy of Adaptation is going to go, but just in writing this I am getting a better idea of how it is going to look. I was reading through all of my blogs for this semester and quickly realized how much I haven’t thought about in a few weeks. I know that when I spend more time revisiting my old posts and references, the pieces will continue falling into place and this jumbled mess will become a much more organized plan.

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Week 12 Reflection

This week we looked at our context in our school and how controlled disruptions and coherence making fit into our leadership role where we are now. I was a bit apprehensive this week, partly because I wasn’t quite sure what was meant by controlled disruption and coherence making, but also because I tend to not want change on a regular basis. That may sound strange considering this whole class has focused on being able to lead through change, but sometimes in education it seems like they are trying to change things too often, which doesn’t really solve much at all. The Twitter chat this week really helped to clarify the question for this week, and after my initial posting, my understanding was clarified even more by reading the comments Tristan and Gerald wrote on my blog. I also read through Tristan’s and Andrea’s blogs this week, which really helped to solidify my understanding. I think I also contributed to the learning of others through my posts in the Twitter chat, by blog posting and resources, and by commenting on Tristan and Andrea’s blogs.

Tristan shared a resource that talked about the common occurrence of schools having too many disturbances without proper support, which causes a lot of frustrations for teachers. This has been my experience so far, for the most part. It seems that districts don’t give new programs much of a chance before they try something new. As soon as I get the hang of one thing, its time to try something new. I don’t think that is the intention of controlled disruption. Controlled disruption would be a lot more useful if teachers had more time to make sense of the disruption before moving on to something else.

Andrea shared her experience in her mentorship as an example of controlled disruption and coherence making. Reading about her experience really helped me to see how I used controlled disruption with my mentee, and also that the entire mentorship was a bit of a controlled disruption for me. Andrea’s post really clarified things at my level right now. Controlled disruption doesn’t have to impact all teachers at one school. Mentorship could be a way to initiate controlled disruption, resulting in coherence making for multiple teachers at once.

This week was a struggle for me to start, but I feel a lot more at ease with the concepts from this week and how I can use them to make myself an effective leader with my peers.

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Week 12: How can understanding of controlled disruption and coherence making impact your leadership of peers at this time, and at this level ?

This week deals with controlled disruption and coherence making and their impact on peer leadership. To start, this really gets me thinking about my context at my school. I am one of the youngest teachers at my high school, which means I have had a very different teaching experience over my 7 years than most of the other teachers I work with. There have been a variety of changes that have happened in education while all of us have been teaching, but I only have a limited grasp of what those changes have been. Some changes have been for the better, while others have not, but still these teachers have persevered. I will say, that many teachers are so tired of the “latest and greatest” thing, that they are often not willing to give new ideas a chance. I see myself as a person who can help other teachers adapt to new changes and help them find the right way to use them in their classroom, based on their needs. Looking more at controlled disruption and coherence making will help me become even more effective as a leader with my peers.

According to Fullan, “…persistent coherence is a dangerous thing.” (2001, p.108) I think of this as a constant lack of change. Everyone gets comfortable where they are, and there is no move towards making any changes. An educational example of this would be teachers using the same lessons from year to year. They get comfortable with what they know, and don’t like to mess with what works. But this doesn’t allow for new or improved lessons to be developed or used. Students could be missing out on possible results from disrupting the flow.

In schools, persistent coherence is usually not an issue at the surface. “In schools…the main problem is not the absence of innovations but the presence of too many disconnected, episodic, piecemeal, superficially adorned projects.” (Fullan, 2001, p.109) this is where disruption comes in. In the 7 years I’ve been in the classroom, I have seen so many different policies and tools presented to teachers, often so close together you barely have a chance to get the hang of one before you have to start using the next. But this is not the kind of disturbance we need to lead through change. We need productive disturbance. “Effective leadership means guiding people through the differences and, indeed, enabling differences to surface.” (Fullan, 2001, p.114) These disturbances are necessary to allow for coherence making, which can help leaders bring their team together to work for a productive solution.

I founds a list of 7 Tips for Leading Your Peers, which I think fits in well with the concepts of controlled disturbance and coherence making. “Having a collaborative spirit helps immensely when you discover that your idea may not be the best idea. As a team player, it’s important to recognize where you can add value when you let your idea go and let the best idea win.” (The John Maxwell Company, 2013) One of my main takeaways from controlled disturbance and coherence making is that it isn’t always the leader that comes up with the best solution. To be a good leader of my peers, I need to work with them to find solutions to the problems we face, whether they result from a controlled disturbance or we already know about them.

Based on my context at school, and my experience being a mentor this semester, I see myself as becoming an informal teacher leader. These “emerge spontaneously and organically from the teacher ranks. Instead of being selected, they take the initiative to address a problem or institute a new program. They have no positional authority; their influence stems from the respect they command from their colleagues through their expertise and practice.” (Danielson, 2007) I hope that I will have the expertise and ability to earn respect from my colleagues as an effective educational leader, not only for the positive impact I could have on my colleagues, but also for the positive impact it could have on the students. “Research shows that when teachers are empowered to function as autonomous professionals and leaders, this builds a sense of professional confidence and pride that feeds effective teaching practice.” (Berry, et. al, 2010)

References

Berry, B., Daughtrey, A., Wiedner, A. (2010) Teacher Leadership: Leading the Way to Effective Teaching and Learning. Center for Teaching Quality. Retrieved April 13, 2017 from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509719.pdf

Danielson, C. (2007) The Many Faces of Leadership. Educational Leadership, 65(1), 14-19. Retrieved April 13, 2017 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept07/vol65/num01/The-Many-Faces-of-Leadership.aspx

Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.,U.S. Retrieved from http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2081/lib/uasoutheast/reader.action?ppg=17&docID=10842273&tm=1444680173430

The John Maxwell Company. (2013) 7 Tips for Leading Your Peers. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.johnmaxwell.com/blog/7-tips-for-leading-your-peers

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Week 11 Reflection

This week was about knowledge creation and sharing, and the role they both play in healthy educational organizations. Some of the best lessons I’ve used in my classroom have come from other teachers. Unfortunately, there are not many chemistry teachers in my district, and we hardly ever get time to collaborate together and share ideas. After this week, I can see how crucial knowledge sharing is to successful educational organizations, and am encouraged by the idea of sharing more knowledge with my colleagues, both in this district and around the country.

This week Gerald, Natalie, and Josie commented on my blog. I read and commented on Tristan and Larissa’s blogs. These interactions, as well as the Twitter session and my research for my blog post, both contributed to my learning and to the learning of my classmates. Tristan shared an interesting quote about how sharing knowledge leads to a “competitive edge” for teachers. If teachers share with each other, they might have more time to work on their teaching skills instead of coming up with lessons. I know that sometimes I feel like I spend too much time trying to develop new lessons when I could be putting more effort into what I actually do in class.

Larissa shared a quote at the beginning of her post that made me think more about why more teachers don’t share: “Collaboration creates equality for all students.” This got me thinking about the reasons that teachers and administrators don’t share and collaborate? It would be interesting to take a survey of the teachers both in my school and my district to see why they don’t share knowledge and collaborate. I know the main obstacle for me is usually time, but I wonder if that is the only reason for everyone.

This week really got me thinking about how I can become a better knowledge sharer, and how I can approach the topic with my administration. I think the Edcamp idea is a great one, and would love to see a version of this sometime for a professional development day either at my school, or even at the district level. I look forward to having opportunities to speak with my administration about this idea, as well as some of the other things we’ve been discussing this semester.

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Week 11: What is the role of knowledge creation and sharing in a healthy educational organization?

This week we are looking at the role of knowledge creation and sharing in a healthy educational organization. I put an emphasis on healthy because I think that is key to answering this week’s question. To me, a healthy educational organization can easily adapt to change and excel, moving past the barriers that other organizations might get stuck behind. Knowledge sharing is one concept that could distinguish different educational organizations as being healthy. “Schools systems…would be well advised to name knowledge sharing as a core value–to label it explicitly, which they do not now do–and to begin to work on the barriers and procedures to dramatically increase its use.” (Fullan, 2001, p.105)

Another quote I found in a research article about knowledge sharing in a post-secondary institution also demonstrates the importance of knowledge sharing. “It is widely recognized that knowledge is the critical asset to individual as well as organization to succeed in the increasingly competitive environment.” (Cheng, et al, 2009, p. 313) This article continues on to examine the importance of knowledge sharing at universities and how it can be facilitated. “The findings suggest that to promote knowledge sharing activity in knowledge-based institutions, it is essential to create an environment which is people-oriented, rather than technological-oriented.” (Cheng, et al, p. 322)

Some examples of strategies used by New York City District 2 to increase knowledge sharing are intervisitation and peer networks, and instructional consulting services. (Fullan, 2001, p.93) The intervisitation and peer networks helped teachers to share knowledge with other teachers and principals to share knowledge with other principals. The use of instructional consulting services provided support to teachers to help them improve their instructional practices using a variety of methods. Both of these are good examples of how a district can use knowledge sharing to help leaders and teachers improve. Another way that teachers can engage in knowledge sharing is through Edcamps.

According to an Edutopia article by Kristen Swanson (2013), Edcamps are events where teachers come together to share knowledge in a free and informal setting. It isn’t like some education conferences where you pay a hefty fee and are surrounded by vendors trying to sell you the latest and greatest materials, but instead is just a group of teachers meeting together to share their own resources and ideas. There isn’t going to be a pre-set schedule or list of topics, but the schedule is created by the group as they talk about what they want to learn. This sounds like a very interesting idea that would not be hard to put together because everyone is contributing to the plan. I think that my district, or even just my school, could really benefit from hold an Edcamp as there are so many teachers that have so much to offer.

So far I’ve looked at how educational organizations can utilize knowledge sharing between teachers and administration, but what about knowledge sharing between students? “Collaborative learning is one of the established, popular and effective learning approaches. However, the success of this approach largely depends on students’ attitude and behavior towards information and knowledge sharing with their peers.” (Majid & Chitra, 2013, p.1292) Two of the top motivating factors for sharing knowledge in this study were identified as “to improve understanding of concepts discussed in the class and to develop relationship with other students.” (Majid & Chitra, 2013, p.1296) So if we are to examine the role of knowledge sharing at a student level, I think it could be said that knowledge sharing can only enhance the learning experience for students.

Looking at knowledge sharing across (teacher-teacher, admin-admin) educational organizations and within (student-student) educational organizations, I think that the role of knowledge sharing is to make those organizations more effective and more efficient. This knowledge sharing could even be one of the necessary pieces to making an organization healthy. When everyone is sharing what they know, the whole organization, from the leaders to the learners, can benefit from that.

 

References

Cheng, M., Sze-Yin Ho, J., & Lau, P. (2009). Knowledge Sharing in Academic Institutions: a Study of Multimedia University Malaysia. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management , 7(3), 313-324. Retrieved April 5, 2017.

Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.,U.S. Retrieved from http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2081/lib/uasoutheast/reader.action?ppg=17&docID=10842273&tm=1444680173430

Majid, S.,Chitra, P.K. (2013). Role of Knowledge Sharing in the Learning Process. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal2(1), 1292-1298. Retrieved April 5, 2017.

Swanson, K. (2013). Why Edcamp? edutopia. Retrieved April 5, 2017 from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/why-edcamp-kristen-swanson

 

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Week 10 Reflection

This week we looked at having the “right” and “wrong” people on our teams. My immediate answer to this week’s question was that we should get the wrong people off of our team, but after our Twitter session this week, and reading though my research, I have decided that shouldn’t be the first response. Instead we should work to help those who struggle as team members, giving them an opportunity to share what they have to offer, or adapt to the changes that are being made. Maybe they won’t be a good fit in the long run, but everyone needs time to try and show what they can do. This is encouraging to me, both as a team member, and as a potential leader. I know that I can use what I’ve learned this week to become a better team member, and hopefully a more effective leader.

My learning was impacted this week, and I impacted the learning of others, through the Twitter chat, my blog post and research, the comments on my blog, and reading and commenting on Larissa’s and Jim’s blogs. Larissa made a comparison between helping struggling students and helping struggling team members. She said that leaders should be willing to help weak team members just as they would be willing to help struggling students. This helped me see the potential we have as leaders to help the people on our team we might see as weak, and that we shouldn’t immediately discount them.

Jim talked a lot about what it means for someone to be the “wrong” person for a team. I realized upon reading his post, that I didn’t really think about what it means to be the “wrong” person. Jim mentioned a different moral purpose being the main thing, and I agree with that, but I need to think more about what else could make someone the “wrong” person. Jim’s post gave me a lot to think about this week.

Mentoring Update

I worked with my mentee this week to help her get more comfortable with the differences between her Google Drive and her Google Classroom. She is still working on getting students to join her online classrooms, and I think this week she will make an assignment for her classes to do entirely using the Google Classroom.

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Week 10: Explain and give examples to argue why the following statement is true or false: “Get the right people on your team, and get the wrong ones off.”

When I first saw the question for this week, my immediate response was: True! Of course you don’t want to have the wrong people on your team. But after doing some research this week and our Twitter session on Tuesday, I am definitely leaning more in the False direction. Who’s to say that the wrong person will always be the wrong person. Maybe they just need a chance to adapt. Maybe they have something to offer that the “right” people don’t.

The chapter for this week focuses on relationships. Fullan starts the chapter by saying that it isn’t just the people that cause an enterprise to be successful, but instead “it is actually the relationships that make the difference.” (Fullan, 2001, p.51) To me this makes a lot of sense. You could have a team of the best and brightest people, but if they don’t have a good working relationship, how far will you actually get? That being said, good working relationships can’t make up for a weak member on the team. Good leadership is key to dealing with a weak team member. Weaknesses can come in many different areas, so it would be hard to look at all possibilities, but as educational leaders, there are ways we can work with our weaker team members to help them fit with our team.

I came across a book this week, How to Help Your School Thrive Without Breaking the Bank, and read through the first chapter, Honing Your Leadership and Growing New Leaders. Part of this chapter discusses what makes a leader effective, and I thought a description of one of the traits, being a nurturer, could help leaders deals with some weak team members. “Effective leaders make sure that no teacher is left behind: they pick up those who have fallen, lend an ear or a shoulder to those who need support, and generally help to recharge staff members and prepare them for another day.” (Gabriel & Farmer, 2009) Sometimes just being available for team members could help them become stronger team members. I know that if I don’t feel like my leader values me, I find it harder to be a team player.

I found another perspective in an article titled “What to do with your problem team member” by Professor Leigh Thompson. Thompson gives four steps to follow if there is a problem-member on your team, or a “delta member”:

  1. Reassess and, if necessary, reassign the roles
  2. If you still have a problem, revise the team process
  3. Give everybody a crash course on how to engage in healthy conflict
  4. As a final resort, invite the team to coach each other (Thompson, n.d.)

While all of these aren’t completely relevant to education, I think these steps could be adapted to work in an education setting. The main thing I take away from this article is that it is worth looking at the whole team when there is an issue with someone on it.

While I have shifted my initial response from this week’s question from True to False, I read another article that had some good points for the True argument. If you are trying to change your organization, “…if you have the wrong people on the bus, nothing else matters. You may be headed in the right direction, but you still won’t achieve greatness. Great vision with mediocre people still produces mediocre results.” (Collins, 2001) The only real issue I have with this statement, is that this assumes that the “wrong people” cannot turn into the “right people”. If not everyone on your team is on-board with the changes, and they are not able to adapt and get on-board, I could see an argument for getting them off your team. But people should be given the chance to adapt before being tossed off of the bus.

References

Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great. jimcollins.com. Retrieved 31 March 2017, from http://www.jimcollins.com/article_topics/articles/good-to-great.html

Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.,U.S. Retrieved from http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2081/lib/uasoutheast/reader.action?ppg=17&docID=10842273&tm=1444680173430

Gabriel, J., & Farmer, P. (2009). How to help your school thrive without breaking the bank (1st ed., Chapter 1). Alexandria, Va.: ASCD.

Thompson, P. (n.d.). How to handle the problem team member. Kellogg.northwestern.edu. Retrieved 31 March 2017, from http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/news_articles/2014/11072014-bad-team-member.aspx

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